The Relationship between Bangladeshi Primary School Teachers’ Classroom Assessment Literacy and Their Training on Classroom Assessment

The Relationship between Bangladeshi Primary School Teachers’ Classroom Assessment Literacy and Their Training on Classroom Assessment

Sumera Ahsan* Institute of Education and Research, University of Dhaka (Bangladesh)
Ayesha Mahmood BRAC-Institute of Educational Development, BRAC University (Bangladesh
Jennifar Nusrat Sonia I.E.S School and College (Bangladesh)
Teachers’ knowledge and skills in assessment are important factors for improving the practice of Classroom Assessment (CA), which is a vital component of teaching and learning. There is ample research attempting to ascertain if training can contribute to increasing teachers’ knowledge and skills in assessment. In Bangladesh, the new curriculum places significant emphasis on classroom assessment compared to summative assessment. This study aims to answer the following questions: What is the status of Classroom Assessment Literacy (CAL) among primary school teachers in Bangladesh? What is the relationship between teachers’ training in assessment and their CAL? And what factors do teachers believe affect the translation of training in CA into CAL? The study followed a mixed-method research approach. Initially, quantitative data on teachers’ CAL and their training in CA were collected from 100 primary school teachers in Dhaka city using a CAL Test. Based on the results of this test, eight teachers with different combinations of CAL levels and training were interviewed. The results showed that the mean score of the sample of primary school teachers was above the middle score but still not high. Their mean score varied across different components of the test. For example, teachers were found to be most competent in using assessment data to make decisions and least competent in selecting appropriate assessment tools. We found that the more hours of training in assessment the teachers had, the lower they scored on the CAL test. However, this relationship was weak. We also found that having a Master of Education (MEd) degree can make a significant difference in their CAL test score. Teachers with more years of experience appeared to score lower on the test and vice versa (though not statistically significant). Qualitative data revealed that each teacher followed their own unique CA styles with a combination of different CA techniques, and there was no pattern based on teachers’ CAL test scores. However, teachers with higher CAL test scores seemed to provide feedback to their students in a more descriptive and meaningful way than teachers with lower CAL test scores. Data revealed that training is one of the sources of teachers’ knowledge and skills in CA among others. However, various enabling and deterring factors work together to determine the effectiveness of training in bringing about sustainable change in teachers’ knowledge and skills in CA. Among many factors, the “one shot” and “one size fits all” design of the trainings were found to be ineffective by teachers who have unique classroom contexts. Additionally, teachers’ own perceptions of training, the school environment, and context are also factors that affect the translation of training in CA into sustainable CAL that they can apply in practice.
Classroom Assessment Literacy
primary education
teacher training

[1] Abell, S. K., & Siegel, M. A. (2011). Assessment literacy: What science teachers need to. In The professional knowledge base of science teaching, 205-221. http://

[2] Ahmed, S. S., Islam, M. S., & Salahuddin, M. (2015). Classroom Assessment Practices in Urban Secondary Science Classes in Bangladesh. NAEM Journal, 10(19), 32-42.

[3] Ahsan, M. T., Sharma, U., & Deppeler, J. M. (2012). Exploring pre-service teachers’ perceived teachingefficacy, attitudes and concerns about inclusive education in Bangladesh. International Journal of Whole Schooling, 8(2), 1-20.

[4] Ahsan, S. (2009). Classroom Assessment Culture in Secondary Schools of Dhaka City. Teachers World: Journal of Education and Research, 33-34, 231-244.

[5] Ahsan, S., & Smith, W.C. (2016). Facilitating student learning: a comparison of classroom and accountability would be indented. In W.C. Smith (Ed.). The global testing culture: shaping education policy, perceptions and practice, 131-152. Oxford: Symposium Books.

[6] American Federation of Teachers, National Council on Measurement in Education, & National Education Association (1990). Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students. Retrieved from Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students | Buros Center for Testing

[7] Babu, R. (2016). Teaching Science in Bangladesh: Expectation versus Reality. Journal of Education and Learning, 10(3), 244-254

[8] Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80 (2), 139–149

[9] BANBEIS. (2023). Bangladesh Education Statistics. Dhaka: Ministry of Education.

[10] Bayat, K., & Rezaei, A. (2015). Importance of Teachers‟ Assessment Literacy. International Journal of English Language Education, 3(1), 139-146. https://

[11] Chappuis, J., Stiggins, R., Chappuis, S., & Arter, J. (2012). Classroom assessment for student learning: Doing it right-using it well. Assessment Training Institute.

[12] Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2017). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Sage

[13] Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Sage

[14] Directorate of Primary Education, (2021). Bangladesh primary education Statistics-2021. Monitoring and Evaluation Division

[15] Djoub, Z. (2017). Assessment Literacy: Beyond Teacher Practice. In: Al-Mahrooqi, R., Coombe, C., AlMaamari, F., Thakur, V. (eds) Revisiting EFL Assessment. Second Language Learning and Teaching. Springer, Cham. 32601-6_2

[16] Dutta, S., & Begum, H. A. (2020). Classroom Assessment Literacy of Secondary School Teachers in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Education Journal, 19(1), 1-14.

[17] Ehsan, M. A., Biswas, T. K., & Uzzaman, M. A. (2012). Primary Teachers‟ Training Program in Bangladesh: A Study on Good Practices and Challenges. Primary Education Journal, 6, 1-11

[18] Falsgraf, C. (2005). Why a national assessment summit? New visions in action. National Assessment Summit. Meeting conducted in Alexanderia, Va

[19] Fard, Z. R., & Tabatabaei, O. (2018). Investigating Assessment Literacy of EFL Teachers in Iran. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 5(3), 91-100.

[20] Gottheiner, Daniel & Siegel, Marcelle. (2012). Experienced middle school science teachers‟ assessment literacy: Investigating knowledge of students‟ conceptions in genetics and ways to shape instruction. Journal of Science Teacher Education. 23. https://doi. org/10.1007/s10972-012-9278-z.

[21] Guillemin, M., & Gillam, L. (2004). Ethics, reflexivity, and “ethically important moments” in research. Qualitative inquiry, 10(2), 261-280.

[22] Ismail, S.M., Rahul, D.R., Patra, I. & Rezvani, E. (2022). Formative vs. summative assessment: impacts on academic motivation, attitude toward learning, test anxiety, and self-regulation skill. Language Testing in Asia. 12 (40), 1-23. 022-00191-4

[23] Jahangir, S.; Saheen, N. & Kazmi, S. (2012). In-service training: A contributory factor influencing teachers‟ performance. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 1(1), 31-38

[24] Jahangir, Syeda & Saheen, Nighat & Kazmi, Syeda. (2012). In service training: A contributory factor influencing teachers’ performance. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 1, 31-38.

[25] Jeong, H. (2013). Defining Assessment Literacy: Is it different for Language Testers and Non-Language Testers? Language Testing, 30(3). http://dx.doi. org/30.10.1177/0265532213480334

[26] Johnson, B. and Christensen, L. (2014). Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches. 5th Edition, Sage

[27] Mertler, C. A., & Campbell, C. (2005). Measuring Teachers‟ Knowledge and Application of Classroom Assessment Concepts: Development of the Assessment Literacy Inventory. [Paper presentation]. Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

[28] Mertler, C. A. (2003). Pre-service versus in-service teachers‟ assessment literacy: Does Classroom Experience Make A Difference? [Paper presentation]. Annual Meeting of the Mid- Western Educational Research Association. Columbus, Ohio

[29] Miller, M. D., Linn, R. L., & Gronlund, N. (2013). Measurement and assessment in teaching (11th ed.). Pearson. Newfields, T. (2006). Teacher development and assessment literacy authentic communication. Proceedings of the 5th Annual JALT Pan-SIG Conference, 48-73.

[30] Omar, C. (2014). The need for in-service training for teachers and its effectiveness in school. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 2(11), 1-9

[31] Plake, B. S., & Impara, J. C. (1997). Teacher assessment literacy: What do teachers know about assessment?. In

[32] G. D. Phye (Ed.), Handbook of classroom assessment: Learning adjustment, and achievement, 53-58, Academic.

[33] Popham, W. J. (2009). Assessment literacy for teachers: Faddish or fundamental? Theory into Practice, 48, 4-11.

[34] Popham, W. J. (2006). Needed: A dose of assessment literacy. Educational Leadership, 63, 84-85

[35] Qualters, D. M. (2001). Using classroom assessment data to improve student learning, Classroom Assessment Guidebook, Northeastern University, USA.

[36] Quilter, S.M. (1998). In-service teachers’ assessment literacy and attitude toward assessment. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Carolina

[37] Rahman, A. M., Bhoumik, S. K., Islam, M. S., & Siddik, M. A. (2023). Revised Diploma in Primary Eduation (Basic Primary Teachers’ Training) Module 3 : Curriculumm Teaching-Learning and Assessment.

[38] Rahman, M. M. (2018). Exploring teachers practices of classroom assessment in secondary science classes in Bangladesh. Journal of Education and Learning, 7(4), 274-283

[39] Rahman, M. M., & Ahmed, S. S. (2010). Classroom assessment and student learning: An exploration of secondary school teacher practices. NAEM Journal, 5(10), 32-44

[40] Rossman, G.B. & Rallis, S.F. (2012). Learning in the Field: An Introduction to Qualitative Research. 3rd Edition, Sage

[41] Rothinam, N. (2023). The relationship between self-efficacy and attitude towards assessment literacy among teachers. European Proceedings of Educational Sciences, 7, 499-511. epes.23097.45

[42] Schildkamp, K. V. (2020). Formative assessment: A systematic review of critical teacher prerequisites for classroom practice. International Journal of Educational Research, 103. ijer.2020.101602

[43] Sheesh, S., & Mullick, J. (2008). Teachers’ quality and teacher education at primary education sub sector in Bangladesh. BRAC University Journal, 1(1).

[44] Sousa, V. D., & Rojjanasrirat, W. (2011). Translation, adaptation and validation of instruments or scales for use in cross‐cultural health care research: a clear and user‐friendly guideline. Journal of evaluation in clinical practice, 17(2), 268-274. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1365-2753.2010.01434.x

[45] Stiggins, R. (2002). Assessment crisis: The absence of assessment for learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 83(10), 758- 65.

[46] Stiggins, R. J. (2001). The unfulfilled promise of classroom assessment. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 20(3), 5-15. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1745-3992.2001.tb00065.x

[47] Stiggins, R. J. (1992). High quality classroom assessment: What does it really mean? Educational measurement issues and practice. Educational Measurement Issues and Practice, 11(2). 3992.1992.tb00241.x

[48] Stiggins, R. J. (1991). Assessment literacy. Phi Delta Kappan, 72(7), 534-539.

[49] Sultana, S. & Rahman, M. (2010). English language teaching-learning situation among the Garo tribe and mainstream schools of Bangladesh. Teacher’s World: Journal of Education and Research, 35-36, 67-77

[50] Taras, M. (2005). Assessment: Summative and formative some theoritical reflections. British Journal of Educational Studies, 53(4)

[51] Teddlie, C., & Tashakkori, A. (2009). Foundations of mixed methods research: Integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences. Sage.

[52] The Daily Star. (2023). Dhaka‟s uninspiring govt. primary schools. retrieved from https://www.thedailystar. net/weekend-read/news/dhakas-uninspiring-govt-primary-schools-3244616

[53] University of Nebraska-Lincoln. (1990). Standards for Teacher Competence in Educational Assessment of Students, Buros Center for Testing. https://buros. org/standards-teacher-competence-educationalassessment-students

[54] Xu, Y. & Brown, G. T. L. (2017). University English teacher assessment literacy: A survey test report from China. Papers in Language Testing and Assessment, 6 (1), 133-158

[55] Yamtim, V., & Wongwanich, S. (2014). A Study of Classroom Assessment Literacy of Primary School Teachers. Social and Behavioral Sciences. 116, 2998 – 3004.

[56] Yasmin, N. (2012). Exploring secondary school teachers’ attitude towards classroom assessment and its implications for students’ learning. Unpublished masters’ thesis, Institute of Education and Research, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

[57] Zulaiha, S., Mulyono, H., & Ambarsari, L. (2020). An investigation into EFL teachers‟ assessment literacy: Indonesian teachers‟ perceptions and classroom practice. European Journal of Contemporary Education, 9(1), 189-201. ejced.2020.1.189

Articles in Issue