Continuous Professional Development Programme Needs of Secondary School Geography Teachers

Continuous Professional Development Programme Needs of Secondary School Geography Teachers

Kezang Yangchen Ministry of Education (Bhutan)
Tashi Ministry of Education (Bhutan)
Lekh Raj Ghalley Ministry of Education (Bhutan)
In light of the changing dynamics and developments in the education system, the professional development (PD) of teachers is seen as a crucial means to improve the competencies of teachers. There have been numerous prior studies that examined the need for teacher professional development in various educational contexts. However, research in this area is extremely scarce in Bhutan. The main aim of this study was to examine the perceptions of geography teachers in the western region of Bhutan regarding the need for professional development. The study was conducted based on the pragmatic paradigm and included an explanatory sequential mixed-method design. Considering the need of the study and the methodology designed, the study employed stratified simple random sampling for the survey and non-probability purposive sampling for Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). A total of 104 geography teachers participated in the survey, and 10 teachers participated in FGDs, which were conducted in two groups. The findings of the study revealed that most teachers could not meet the 80 hours of PD requirement. The findings also indicated that the most needed professional development areas for the teachers were subject content, instructional technology and designs, assessment and evaluation, special education, and research. It was determined that some of the participants needed professional development in the areas of teaching strategy and classroom management. The study suggests that the Ministry of Education (MoE) and other relevant stakeholders provide subject-based PD Programmes that respond to teachers’ needs.
Teacher professional development programme
professional development needs
and Effective PD Programme.

[1] Atencio, M., Jess, M., & Dewar, K. (2012). ‘It is a case of changing your thought processes, the way you actually teach’: Implementing a complex professional learning agenda in Scottish physical education. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 17(2), 127-144. 11.565469.

[2] Badri, M., Alnuaimi, A., Mohaidat, J., Yang, G., & Al Rashedi, A. (2016). Perception of teachers’ professional development needs, impacts, and barriers: The Abu Dhabi case. Sage Open, 6(3), 2158244016662901. https://doi. org/10.1177/2158244016662901.

[3] Bautista, A., Wong, J., and Gopinathan, S. (2015). Teacher professional development in Singapore: depicting the landscape. Psychology, Society and Education, 7 (3), 311–326

[4] Becker, H. J. (1999). Internet use by teachers: Conditions of professional use and teacher- directed student use (Vol. 1). Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations, the University of California, Irvine and the University of Minnesota. startpage.htm

[5] Bindu, C. N. (2019). Barriers to ICT Integration in teaching: A case study of teachers in Kerala. Education India Journal: A Quarterly Refereed Journal of Dialogues on Education, 5(2), 11-26

[6] Byrd, D. R., & Alexander, M. (2020). Investigating special education teachers’ knowledge and skills: Preparing general teacher preparation for professional development. Journal of Pedagogical Research, 4(2), 72-82. https://doi. org/10.33902/JPR.2020059790.

[7] Darling-Hammond, L., & Richardson, N. (2009). Research review/teacher learning: What matters. Educational leadership, 66(5), 46-53

[8] Dukpa, D. (2014). Inclusion and disability: Bhutanese teachers’ perspective (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Roehampton, London

[9] Department of Curriculum and Professional Development. (2021, August 1). Continuous Formative Assessment Guidebook – DCPD. wpfd_file/continuous-

[10] Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational researcher, 38(3), 181-199.

[11] Dhendup, S., Jatsho, S., & Tshering, S. (2021). Exploring Teachers’ Perceptions of Professional development: Issue 1, Volume 20, 2024 59 A Report of a Research Study Undertaken in Thimpu District Schools. Journal on Educational Psychology, 14(3)

[12] Dorji, T. (2020). Integration of ICT in Bhutanese schools– Common obstacles and the way forward. The Druk Journal, 6 (1), 49-54

[13] Feighan, K., & Heeren, E. (2009). She was my backbone: Measuring coaching work and its impact. CEDER Yearbook, 6793

[14] Gokmenoglu, T., Clark, C. M., & Kiraz, E. (2016). Professional development needs of Turkish teachers in an era of national reforms. Australian Journal of Teacher Education (Online), 41(1), 113-125

[15] Hart, H. M, Allensworth, E., Lauen, D. L., & Gladden, R. M. (2002). Educational technology: Availability and use in Chicago’s public schools. Chicago: Consortium on Chicago School Research.

[16] Hill, H. C., Rowan, B., & Ball, D. L. (2005). Effects of teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching on student achievement. American educational research journal, 42(2), 371-406. https://doi. org/10.3102/00028312042002371.

[17] James, M. Teacher development -an international perspective. (2014). Retrieved June 3, 2022, from

[18] Karlberg, M., & Bezzina, C. (2020). The professional development needs of beginning and experienced teachers in four municipalities in Sweden. Professional Development in Education, 1-18.

[19] Koç, M., Demirbilek, M., & İnce, E. Y. (2015). A Needs Assessment for Academicians’ Professional Development. Education & Science/ Egitim ve Bilim, 40(177)

[20] Kirkpatrick, R., & Gyem, K. (2012). Washback effects of the new English assessment system on secondary schools in Bhutan. Language testing in Asia, 2(4), 1-28.

[21] Knowles, M. S., Holton, E., & Swanson, R. (2005). The adult learner: the definitive classic in adult education and human resource development (6th). Burlington, MA: Elsevier. ripssis/resources- publications/legal-researchtext-reviews/

[22] Miller, W. (2013). Better principal training is key to school reform. Phi Delta Kappan, 94(8), 80-80.

[23] Ministry of Education. Teacher Human Resource Policy 2014. (2014). Retrieved June 5, 2022 from https:// ressources/bhutan_teacher_human_resource_ policy_2014.pdf

[24] Pasha, M. A., & Gorya, J. (2019). Student preference and perception towards online education in Hyderabad City. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, 3(3), 656-659.

[25] Rea, P. J., McLaughlin, V. L., & Walther-Thomas, C. (2002). Outcomes for students with learning disabilities in inclusive and pullout programs. Exceptional children, 68(2), 203-222.

[26] Mitchem, K., Wells, D. L., & Wells, J. G. (2003). Effective integration of instructional technologies (IT): Evaluating professional development and instructional change. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 11(3), 397-414.

[27] Mundry, S. (2005). Changing perspectives in professional development. Science educator, 14(1), 9-15

[28] Nadelson, L. S., Seifert, A., Moll, A. J., & Coats, B. (2012). i-STEM summer institute: An integrated approach to teacher professional development in STEM. Journal of STEM Education: Innovation and Outreach.

[29] Odden, A., Archibald, S., Fermanich, M., & Gallagher, H. A. (2002). A cost framework for professional development. Journal of education finance, 28(1), 51-74

[30] The Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development. Teachers matter. Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers. (2005). Retrieved September 10, 2022, from dataoecd/39/47/34990905.pdf

[31] Oliver, R. M., & Reschly, D. J. (2007). Effective Classroom Management: Teacher Preparation and Professional Development. TQ Connection Issue Paper. National comprehensive center for teacher quality

[32] Parker, M., Patton, K., Madden, M., & Sinclair, C. (2010). From committee to community: The development and maintenance of a community of practice. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 29(4), 337-357

[33] Pinho, A. S., & Andrade, A. I. (2015). Redefining professional identity: the voice of a language teacher in a context of collaborative learning. European Journal of Teacher Education, 38(1), 21-40

[34] Royal Education Council. A Guide to Action Research: Enhancing Professional Practice of Teachers in Bhutan. (2018). Retrieved March 9, 2022, from https:// Guide_to_Action_Research_Enhancing_ Professional_Practice_of_Teachers_in_Bhutan

[35] Samtse college of Education. Preparedness of Bhutanese for inclusive education: An Exploratory study. (2020). Retrieved March 9, 2022, from https://scholar. tse+college+of+Education.+Preparedness+of+Bhuta nese+for+inclusive+education%3A+An+Exploratory +study.+%282020%29.+&btnG

[36] Siebert, C. J. (2005). Promoting preservice teachers ‘success in classroom management by leveraging a local union’s resources: a professional development school initiative. Education, 125(3)

[37] Smalley, S., Hainline, M. S., & Sands, K. (2019). Schoolbased Agricultural Education Teachers’ Perceived Professional Development Needs Associated with 60 VIETNAM JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES Teaching, Classroom Management, and Technical Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural Education, 60(2), 85-98.

[38] Tannehill, D., Demirhan, G., Čaplová, P., & Avsar, Z. (2021). Continuing professional development for physical education teachers in Europe. European Physical Education Review, 27(1), 150-167

[39] Villegas-Reimers, E. (2003). Teacher professional development: an international review of the literature. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning, 7-9.

[40] Wangmo, D. (2018). Role of Education Policies in Bhutan and its Impact on the Economy. Thammasat Review of Economic and Social Policy, 4(1), 56-78. https://

[41] Wong, K. Y. (2013, January). Transforming Science, Mathematics and Technology Education. Diverse pathways for life-long teacher professional development [Paper presentation]. Retrieved March 12, 2022, from https://hdl.handle. net/10497/6210

Articles in Issue