Conceptualizing Teacher Agency for Culturally Responsive Teaching in International Programs at Higher Education Levels

Conceptualizing Teacher Agency for Culturally Responsive Teaching in International Programs at Higher Education Levels

Phuong Minh Luong Vietnam Japan University (Vietnam National University) Hanoi University (Vietnam)
In light of the internationalization of higher education, teachers play a crucial role in promoting culturally responsive teaching (CRT) for all students from diverse backgrounds. A growing interest in teacher agency and its enactment in culturally diverse environments has recently emerged among educators and policy makers. However, a systematic conceptualization of teacher agency in CRT remains under-explored. This article presents a theoretical framework that synthesizes existing theories of teacher agency and analyses conditions for its enactment in CRT in international programs. Teacher agency in CRT has been addressed in five major aspects including CRT teacher identity, professional competence, professional philosophy, autonomy and reflexivity. Institutional conditions have been described for curriculum adaptation and development, culturally responsive pedagogy and enabling environment building. This paper discusses the implications for teacher education, professional development and institutional provisions in order to facilitate the transformation of CRT practices in international programs at higher education levels.
teacher agency
culturally responsive teaching
international programs
higher education.

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