Shaking off the remnants from a long-lasting period of colonization and conflicts, the 35-year span from 1986 with multiple comprehensive reforms has transformed Vietnam from a country of war to an “emerging dragon” across all social and economic sectors, including education. Vietnam made an impressive success story of the efficiency of investment in education given its top position in the PISA average score ranking and international academic competitions. This article accounts for the major post-1986 changes of Vietnam’s education system, the country’s “success formula” as well as lapses. Recommendations for educational policymakers and educators regarding the role of the education sector in the coming ever-disruptive social and economic context will be discussed as concluding remarks.
 ADB (2013), Viet Nam: Vocational and Technical Education Project, . Asian Development Bank.
 Anh Kiet. (2019). Vietnam spends 5.8% of GDP on education. Hanoitimes - Economic and Urban newspaper. Retrieved from https://english.vietnamnet. vn/fms/education/216664/vietnam-spends-5-8--ofgdp-on-education.html
 Azubuike, O. B., & Little, A. W. (2019), Learning Motivations, Learning Outcomes and Gender in Vietnam‘. Young Lives.
 BCG (2015), A Study of Employment and Talent in the Digital Economy (Part I)‘. Boston Consulting Group
 Bodewig, C., & Badiani-Magnusson, R. (2014). Skilling up Vietnam: Preparing the workforce for a modern market economy. World Bank.
 Bui, A., Nguyen, C., Nguyen, D., Nguyen, T., & Pham, T. P. (2019). The Effect of Tuition Fee Reduction and Education Subsidy on School Enrollment: Evidence from Vietnam. Children and Youth Services Review. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.104536.
 Cameron, A., Pham, T., & Atherton, J. (2018), Vietnam Today – First report of the Vietnam’s Future Digital Economy Project‘. Brisbane: CSIRO.
 Clarke, M. (2016). The latest PISA results: Seven key takeaways. http://blogs.worldbank.org/education/ latest-pisa-results-seven-key-takeaways. Accessed 2020.02.07.
 Communist Party of Vietnam (1979), Resolution 14 - NQ/ TW‘ C. E. Committee. Hanoi: National Political Publishing House.
 Communist Party of Vietnam (1987), Document for the Sixth National Communist Party Congress‘ C. E. Committee. Hanoi: National Political Publishing House, p. 12.
 CPTC (2018), Report on 5-year implementation of Resolution 29-NQ/TW‘ C. P. a. T. Commission. Hanoi.
 Dang, H.-A. H., & Glewwe, P. W. (2018). Well Begun, But Aiming Higher: A Review of Vietnam‘s Education Trends in the Past 20 Years and Emerging Challenges. The journal of development studies, 54(7), 1171- 1195. doi:10.1080/00220388.2017.1380797.
 Dang, H.-A. H., & Rogers, F. H. (2015). The Decision to Invest in Child Quality over Quantity: Household Size and Household Investment in Education in Vietnam. The World Bank Economic Review, 30(1), 104-142. doi:10.1093/wber/lhv048.
 Das, K. (2018). Labor Market Trends in Vietnam. https:// www.vietnam-briefing.com/news/labor-markettrends-vietnam.html/. Accessed January 20 2020.
 Glewwe, P., Lee, J., Vu, K., & Dang, H. A. (2017), What Explains Vietnam’s Exceptional Performance in Education Relative to Other Countries? Analysis of the 2012 PISA Data‘ RISE Annual Conference, Center for Global Development, Washington, DC,June. pp. 15-16.
 GSO, Major scocioeconomic index in 2005 and 1986‘. 24.05.2019. Available at: https://www.gso.gov.vn/ default.aspx?tabid=418&ItemID=4326.
 GSO, The number of general education students every year‘. Available at: https://www.gso.gov.vn/default. aspx?tabid=722 (Accessed: May 24 2019)
 GSO, The number of universities and colleges in Vietnam, . 2019.05.14. Available at: https://www.gso.gov.vn/ default.aspx?tabid=722.
 GSO, Vietnam National Budget‘. 2020.02.08. Available at: https://www.gso.gov.vn/defaultpx?tabid=715&fbcl id=IwAR1yNAam5MWajaUR_8JZJg910vvzLYLif USIR wPvw9ppowvZ_fJGnoFwqAE.
 GSO (2010)‚ Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey‘. General Statistics Office.
 GSO (2012), Report on the 2011 Vietnam Labor Force Survey‘. General Statistics Office.
 GSO (2016a), Education Financing in Viet Nam, 2009- 2013‘. General Statistical Office.
 GSO (2016b), Labour force at 15 years of age and above by age group Vietnam‘. General Statistics Office.
 GSO (2017). National Accounts,State budget and Insurance. Statistical Yearbook of Vietnam 2017: Statistical Publishing House
 GSO (2019)‚ Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey‘. General Statistics Office
 Holsinger, D. B. (2003). Secondary curriculum question in Vietnam: What should be taught? Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education, 3(3), 339–352.
 ILISSA (2014), Skilled labour: A determining factor for sustainable growth of the nation.‘. Institute of Labour Science and Social Affairs. Available at: http://www. ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/- --ilo-hanoi/documents/publication/wcms_428969. pdf.
 Kataoka, S. (2019), Vietnam’s Human Capital: Remarkable Education Success and Future Challenges‘. Hanoi: The World Bank Group.
 Kennedy, K. J. (2012). Education in South-East Asia. Edited by Colin Brock and Lorraine Pe Symaco. British Journal of Educational Studies, 60(3), 280- 281. doi:10.1080/00071005.2012.714544.
 Le, T. D., & Nguyen, T. T. H. (2016), Inequality in Educational Opportunities and Outcomes: Evidence From Young Lives Data in Vietnam‘. Young Lives.
 Lee, J.-W. (2001). Education for Technology Readiness: Prospects for Developing Countries. Journal of Human Development, 2(1), 115-151. doi:10.1080/14649880120050219.
 Ministry of Science and Technology (2017), Vietnam Science and Technology Outlook 2016‘. Department of International Cooperation.
 MOET, Vietnam education Statistics across all levels‘. May 24th 2019. Available at: https://moet.gov.vn/ thong-ke/Pages/thong-ke.aspx.
 MOET (2015), Decision No 3538/QĐ-BGDĐT on Approval of the National High School Examination from 2015‘ M. o. E. a. Training
 MOET (2017a), Circular No 10/2017/TT-BGDĐT on regulations of distance learning at university level‘ Ministry of Education and Training
 MOET (2017b), Statistics of Vietnam education system‘. Available at: https://moet.gov.vn/thong-ke/Pages/ thong-ke.aspx.
 MOET (2018), Circular 32/2018/TT-BGDĐT on the implementation of the National General Education Curriculum‘ V. M. o. E. a. Training.
 Montenegro, C. E., & Patrinos, H. A. (2014). Comparable estimates of returns to schooling around the world. The World Bank.
 Murray, H. (2012), Is school education breaking the cycle of poverty for children? Factors shaping education inequalities in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam‘ Policy Paper 6. Young Lives
 Mutula, S. M., & Van Brakel, P. (2007). ICT skills readiness for the emerging global digital economy among small businesses in developing countries: Case study of Botswana. 25(2), 231-245. doi:d oi:10.1108/07378830710754992.
 Patrinos, H. A., Thang, P. V., & Thanh, N. D. (2018). The Economic Case for Education in Vietnam.
 Pham, L. H., & Fry, G. W. (2002). The Emergence of Private Higher Education in Vietnam: Challenges and Opportunities. Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 1(1-2), 127–141. doi:https://doi. org/10.1023/A:1021130320485.
 Pham, L. H., & Fry, G. W. (2004). Education and Economic, Political, and Social Change in Vietnam. Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 3(3), 199–222. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10671-005-0678-0.
 Pham, L. H., & Fry, G. W. (2011). Vietnam as an outlier: tradition and change in education. Education in SouthEast Asia (pp. 221-243). Oxford, England: Oxford Studies in Comparative Education Series.
 Prime Minister (2010), Decision No 239/QĐ-TTg on approval of the universalization of kindergarten for five-year-old children from 2010 to 2015‘ T. G. Office
 PwC (2017), Spotlight on Vietnam: The leading emerging market‘. Price Waterhouse Cooper
 Riccio, J., Dechausay, N., Miller, C., Nuñez, S., Verma, N., & Yang, E. (2013). Conditional Cash Transfers in New York City: The Continuing Story of the Opportunity NYC-Family Rewards Demonstration.
 Rolleston, C. (2016), Escaping a low-level equilibrium of educational quality‘. RISE Working Paper 16/008. London: DFID
 Rolleston, C., & Iyer, P. (2019). Beyond the basics: Access and equity in the expansion of post-compulsory schooling in Vietnam. International Journal of Educational Development, 66, 223-233. doi:https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2018.09.002.
 Rolleston, C., & Krutikova, S. (2014). Equalising opportunity? School quality and home disadvantage in Vietnam. Oxford Review of Education, 40(1), 112- 131. doi:10.1080/03054985.2013.875261.
 Thanh, P. T. H. (2010). Implementing a student-centered learning approach at vietnamese higher education institutions: Barriers under layers of Casual Layered Analysis (CLA). Journal of Futures Studies, 15, 21- 38.
 Thanos, M., Van, P., & John, G. S. 2018 (2018), Puzzle me this? The Vietnamese reverse gender education gap‘. Helsinki, Finland: UNU-WIDER.
 Tran, J. (2012). Vietnamese higher education and the issue of enhancing graduate employability. Journal of Teaching and Learning for Graduate Employability, 3(1), 2.
 Trines, S. (2017). Education in Vietnam. World Education News and Review. Retrieved from https://wenr.wes. org/2017/11/education-in-vietnam
 UNICEF, & GSO (2018), Children with disabilities in Vietnam‘.
 United Nations 33 (2017), World population prospects: The 2017 revision‘. New York, United States: United Nations, pp. 1-66 2.
 Viet An (2017). How does universalization of Kindergarten benefit children in Vietnam? https:// dantri.com.vn/giao-duc-khuyen-hoc/pho-cap-mamnon-5-tuoi-dem-lai-nhung-quyen-loi-gi-cho-treem-20170627105555198.htm. Accessed 18.06.2019.
 Villa, R. A., Van Tac, L., Muc, P. M., Ryan, S., Thuy, N. T. M., Weill, C., et al. (2003). Inclusion in Viet Nam: More Than a Decade of Implementation. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 28(1), 23-32. doi:10.2511/rpsd.28.1.23.
 VNIES (2008), Evaluation of the gifted schools quality‘. Vietnam Institute of Educational Sciences.
 VNIES (2010), Report on the assessment of the application of transformative teaching methods in general education‘. Vietnam Institute of Educational Sciences.
 VNU (2006), Decision on the establishment of undergraduate gifted class, .
 Vuong, Q. H. (2019). Computational entrepreneurship: from economic complexities to interdisciplinary research. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 17, 117-129.
 WEF (2016), Human Capital Outlook Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)‘. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: World Economics Forum. Available at: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_ASEAN_ HumanCapitalOutlook.pdf
 World Bank (2017), Population growth (annual %)‘. The World Bank Group. Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP. GROW?locations=VN&view=chart (Accessed: 2019/05/22).
 World Bank (2018), Human Capital Index: Country Briefs and Data‘. Available at: https://www.worldbank.org/ en/publication/human-capital (Accessed: 7/2/2020).
 World Bank, & MPIV (2016), Vietnam 2035: Toward prosperity, creativity, equity, and democracy‘. World Bank Washington, DC; The Ministry of Planning and Investment of Vietnam.