Effect of self-instructional materials (SIM) during the COVID-19 pandemic: An impact study

Effect of self-instructional materials (SIM) during the COVID-19 pandemic: An impact study

Ugyen Penjor* ugyenpen2016@education.gov.bt Dagapela Middle Secondary School (Bhutan)
Sonam Jamtsho sonamjamtsho@education.gov.bt Dagapela Middle Secondary School (Bhutan)
The research was conducted to study the effects of Self-Instructional Materials (SIM) Volume I and II on student learning at Dagapela Middle Secondary School in line with the mandates of the Ministry of Education amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Students ranging from pre-primary to class 10 participated in the study, and data was collected using survey questionnaires and interviews (N=53, with items rated at σ=0.7). The study followed a mixed method approach (Parallel Convergent Mixed Method) combining quantitative and qualitative data. The findings were integrated from both data analyses. The results indicate that secondary grade students were comfortable using SIM for their learning, while lower primary grade students experienced more challenges than opportunities due to the lack of guidance from teachers and support from parents. The study concludes that independent learning materials should be developed for secondary and upper-primary students, aligned with their learning abilities and resource materials. However, similar materials for lower primary students may be ineffective.
Self-Instructional Materials

[1] Ali, S. A., & Elsayed, E. E. (2022). Effectiveness of Self-instructional Module on Nurses’ Performance Regarding Caring of Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress during Covid-19 Outbreaks. International Egyptian Journal of Nursing Sciences and Research, 2(2), 378–396. https://doi.org/10.21608/ ejnsr.2022.212550

[2] Barbetta, P., Norona, K., & Bicard, D. (2005). Classroom Behavior Management: A Dozen Common Mistakes and What to Do Instead. Preventing School Failure, 49, 11–19. https://doi.org/10.3200/PSFL.49.3.11-19

[3] Bhutan Broadcasting Service. (2020, March 19). Schools and educational institutes closed as precautionary measures. BBSCL. http://www.bbs.bt/ news/?p=129835

[4] Bhutan Case Study | UNICEF South Asia. (n.d.). Retrieved March 27, 2023, from https://www.unicef.org/rosa/ documents/bhutan-case-study

[5] Bhutan’s Education in Emergency: Reaching for equity in a time of crisis—Bhutan Canada Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved March 27, 2023, from https://bhutancanada. org/bhutans-education-in-emergency/

[6] Bilda, W., & Fadillah, A. (2020). An Analysis of Students in Independent Learning of Analytic Geometry During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JTAM (Jurnal Teori Dan Aplikasi Matematika), 4(2), 166. https://doi.org/10.31764/jtam.v4i2.2575

[7] Burde, D., Kapit, A., Wahl, R. L., Guven, O., & Skarpeteig, M. I. (2017). Education in Emergencies: A Review of Theory and Research. Review of Educational Research, 87(3), 619–658. https://doi. org/10.3102/0034654316671594

[8] Cai, R., Wang, Q., Xu, J., & Zhou, L. (2020). Effectiveness of Students’ Self-Regulated Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic (SSRN Scholarly Paper No. 3622569). https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=3622569

[9] Canada, B. (2020, May 21). Bhutan’s Education in Emergency: Reaching for equity in a time of crisis. Bhutan Canada Foundation. https://bhutancanada. org/bhutans-education-in-emergency

[10] Cartier, S., Butler, D., & Nancy, B. (2010). Teachers working together to foster self-regulated learning through reading by students in an elementary school located in a disadvantaged area. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 52.

[11] Das, N. K., Sahoo, S., & Pati, L. (2021). Online Learning: Challenges for Education in Rural and Remote Areas. IARJSET, 8(7), 72–76. https://doi.org/10.17148/ IARJSET.2021.8712

[12] Education in emergencies | UNICEF Bhutan. (n.d.). Retrieved March 27, 2023, from https://www.unicef. org/bhutan/topics/education-emergencies

[13] Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction. (2019, November 25). https://www. iiep.unesco.org/en/publication/guidebook-planningeducation-emergencies-and-reconstruction.

[14] Jagadale, A. R. (2022). COVID-19: Challenges Facing in Online Learning by Students in Rural Areas; The Case Study in Nandurbar District. International Journal of Research and Review, 9(4), 116–122. https://doi. org/10.52403/ijrr.20220414

[15] Kinley, T. (2009). E-learning at Paro College of Education, Bhutan: A Case Study. Griffith University

[16] Levinsohn, S. H. (n.d.). Self-Instruction Materials on Narrative Discourse Analysis.

[17] Maphalala, M. C., Mkhasibe, R. G., & Mncube, D. W. (2021). Online Learning as a Catalyst for Self-directed Learning in Universities during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Research in Social Sciences and Technology, 6(2), 233–248. https://doi.org/10.46303/ ressat.2021.25

[18] McLoughlin, C. (1999). The implications of the research literature on learning styles for the design of instructional material. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 15(3), Article 3. https://doi. org/10.14742/ajet.1859

[19] Ministry of Education. (2020a, March 26). Guidelines for Curriculum Implementation Plan for Education in Emergency (EiE). http://www.education.gov.bt/

[20] Ministry of Education. (2020b, April). Covid-19 Response Plan Education in Emergency Phase II. http://www. education.gov.bt/

[21] Ministry of Education. (2021, April). Education in Emergency (EiE) Report. http://www.education.gov. bt/

[22] Ministry of Health. (2020, March 16). National Preparedness and Response Plan for Outbreak of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). https://www.moh. gov.bt/

[23] Minnick, D. R. (1989). A Guide to Creating Self-learning Materials. Int. Rice Res. Inst.

[24] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2020, August 11). Combatting COVID-19’s effect on children. https://www.oecd.org

[25] Peldon, D. (2021). Online Learning Amidst COVID-19 Pandemic: An Analysis of Bhutanese Context. Contemporary Education and Teaching Research, 2(2).

[26] Phuntsho, T. (2022). Experience of Teachers in Implementing the “Education in Emergency During COVID-19 pandemic, 2020: A Case Study in Lower Secondary School in Eastern Bhutan. Bhutan Journal of Research and Development.

[27] Reaching the unreached | UNICEF Bhutan. (n.d.). Retrieved March 27, 2023, from https://www.unicef. org/bhutan/stories/reaching-unreached

[28] Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). Promoting selfdetermined school engagement: Motivation, learning, and well-being. Handbook of motivation at school. Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group,(pp. 171–195)

[29] Schools and educational institutes closed as precautionary measures. (2020, March 18). BBSCL. http://www.bbs. bt/news/?p=129835

[30] Simui, F., Mundende, K., Mwewa, G., Kakana, F., & Namangala, Prof. B. (2017). Distance Learner’s Perspective on User-friendly Instructional Materials at the University of Zambia. Journal of Learning for Development, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.56059/jl4d. v4i1.154

[31] Sinclair, M., & Refugees, U. (2001). Education in emergencies. Http://Lst-Iiep.Iiep-Unesco.Org/CgiBin/Wwwi32.Exe/[In=epidoc1.in]/?T2000=013665/ (100).

[32] Sultana, N. (2016). Evaluation of Self-Instructional Print Material of Distance Education System. Bulletin of Education and Research, 38(2), 95–111.

[33] Tadesse, S., & Muluye, W. (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Education System in Developing Countries: A Review. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 08(10), 159–170. https://doi. org/10.4236/jss.2020.810011

[34] Talimodao, A. J. S., & Madrigal, D. V. (2021). Printed Modular Distance Learning in Philippine Public Elementary Schools in Time of COVID-19 Pandemic: Quality, Implementation, and Challenges. Philippine Social Science Journal, 4(3), 19–29. https://doi. org/10.52006/main.v4i3.391

[35] Tangquan Middle School, Nanjing 210000, Jiangsu, China, Dai, D., Xia, X., & Nantong University, Nantong 226000, Jiangsu, China. (2020). Whether the School Self-Developed e-Learning Platform is More Conducive to Learning during the COVID-19 pandemic? Best Evidence of Chinese Education, 5(1), 569–580. https://doi.org/10.15354/bece.20.ar030

[36] Xie, Z. (2020). Effectiveness of Autonomous Learning Materials for Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study of the Daxie Second Elementary School in Ningbo, Zhejiang, China. Science Insights Education Frontiers, 6(1), 613–624. https://doi.org/10.15354/sief.20.or023

[37] United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2021). Situation Analysis on the Effects of and Responses to COVID-19 on the Education Sector in Asia: Bhutan case study. https:// unesdoc.unesco.org

Articles in Issue